Article at a Glance
- Learn how to get adequate nutrition even when food is less nutritious.
- What is the importance of the approximately forty micronutrients we need in our diet to stay healthy.
- Do you really need to take vitamins, minerals and other supplements? If so, how do they help?
- Learn about the importance of absorption of nutrients from your food and supplements.
- Learn how to add "thermonutrients" to your regimen to boost nutrient absorption.
- Why you should consider replacing tablet, capsule, and powder supplements with microgels.
- Know which vitamins and minerals to pair, and which to split.
- Store your food and vitamins properly, and check the expiration date.
- Understand the effects of your prescription medications.
- Consider prebiotics, probiotics, and digestive enzymes.
There's a lot of hard work that goes into eating a healthy and nutrient dense diet. Planning menu options, food prep time, and discipline; however, is that enough to ensure you're giving your body all of the nutrients it needs? Foods just aren't made the way they used to be, and that doesn't go unnoticed by your body.
Believe it or not, there's a lot that happens to the micronutrients during the timeline of planting healthful foods, to when they make it to your plate, and then into your digestive system for absorption.
As you will learn in this article, there are several factors that influence the health benefits of the food we eat and the supplements we consume.
Micronutrients are needed for optimal health
Micronutrients are vitamins and minerals your body needs in small but adequate quantities to function correctly. There are approximately forty micronutrients that are essential for healthy metabolism and other vital functions. You must get those nutrients from your diet because your body is unable to make enough of them on its own. A healthy diet should be your primary source of nutrition, but is it possible to get and absorb enough of the micronutrients you need to stay optimally healthy from food alone?
Fruits and vegetables grown today contain significantly fewer vitamins and minerals than they did decades ago. Aside from our on-the-go, convenience-focused lifestyles, even the most disciplined eaters aren't getting what they need to stay healthy. For example, a recent study stated that to get the same amount of vitamin A our grandparents would have gotten from one orange, we would have to eat eight oranges today! Multiple studies support these findings and confirm that there are "reliable declines" of micronutrients in fruits and vegetables including calcium, phosphorus, potassium, iron, riboflavin, vitamin A, and vitamin C when comparing nutritional data from the mid to late 1900s.[1,2]
Food is less nutritious. Why is there a nutrient deficiency in the plants we eat?
There are two main culprits for this nutrient decline: soil depletion and longer supply chains.
1. Soil Depletion
Modern agricultural processes have increasingly robbed more and more nutrients from the soil that grows our crops, and this results in a nutrient deficiency in plants, or less nutritious produce. The bad news is that each generation of crops designed for faster growth, climate adaptability, and resistance to pests, and farmed with chemical pesticides, gives rise to less nutritious yields than the one before.
2. Longer Supply Chain
Our supply chains have gotten longer, which means the time from harvest to when we eat fruits and vegetables is longer, sometimes many weeks. The nutrient value of produce degrades literally every hour after being picked. Exposure to heat, light, and oxygen are the three causes of micronutrient loss during transit from harvest to consumption.
According to the Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vegetables lose 15 percent to 77 percent of their vitamin C content within one week of harvest, even when properly refrigerated. Since produce is not always correctly stored, the micronutrient loss is likely greater.
Cooking techniques and food storage can also affect the nutrient value of fruits and vegetables, preventing you from absorbing the full nutrient content. For example, blanching, a quick exposure to boiling water is a common practice in the food industry (and even in the kitchen) to kill bacteria, but it also kills nutrient value. Depending on the length of the blanching period and the type of product being heated, micronutrient loss can be as little as 10 percent or as high as 80 percent. Another study on the effects of blanching on nutrients called phytochemicals showed that antioxidant activity was reduced by 30 percent in peas, and by 50 percent in spinach. A Penn State University Study found that spinach can lose up to 90 percent of its vitamin C content within a mere 24 hours of harvest. This means you have to work harder to ensure your body is getting and absorbing vitamins, minerals and micronutrients needed to optimally function.
Why is it essential to fill the gaps in your diets?
According to Professor of Molecular and Cell Biology at UC Berkeley, Dr. Bruce Ames, "micronutrient deficiency can mimic radiation (or chemicals) in damaging DNA by causing single- and double-strand breaks, oxidative lesions, or both," which in turn are the root causes of many diseases and accelerated aging.
Symptoms of micronutrient deficiency by specific vitamins and minerals are known and discussed further in this article, but in general, symptoms of nutrient deficiency include lethargy, fatigue, poor sleep, digestion issues, mood imbalance, and clouded focus.
How do you get adequate micronutrients?
Now that you have a better understanding of what causes a nutrient deficiency in plants and why micronutrients are needed for your health, here are some tips on how to absorb vitamins better by improving your intake and absorption of vitamins and minerals from the your food.
1. Grow your own food organically and eat right after picking to limit nutrient deficiency in plants.
2. Shop more often and buy less, which limits the time your fruits and vegetables sit on the shelves before eating.
3. Store produce properly in the refrigerator to reduce nutrient reduction.
4. Cook with shorter time periods. Briefly steam or sauté vegetables, so they retain their vibrant colors. Long cooking times destroy nutrient value.
5. Slice fruits and vegetables right before eating. If you slice them too far in advance, they can oxidize and turn brown due to a process called enzymatic browning.
Do I Need to Take Vitamins/ Minerals/ Supplements?
That leads to the question, is a multivitamin really necessary? In a perfect world, you're eating a properly balanced diet with the right amount of fruits and vegetables, plus getting the right amount of exercise each day. However, in reality you now know that our "so-called" healthy foods aren't as healthy as they once were years ago and you may need a little help.
Unfortunately, many days are also characterized by the need for speed and impossible to-do lists without designating sufficient time to take proper care of yourself. Instead of thoughtful care of personal dietary health and the health of loved ones, many diets are focused on convenience and satisfying hunger, not nutritional value and absorption.
To offset any gaps in diets, there are nutritional supplements available when diet alone is not enough. These nutritional supplements are usually focused on providing missing key vitamins and minerals that are lacking from diets and can help support your body maintain its systems at peak performance levels.
As you get older, nutritional supplements become even more important. For example, adults aged 50 or older who are not getting enough vitamin B12 through their everyday diet should consider a nutritional supplement that contains B12. And adults age 65 and older are encouraged to boost their intake of vitamin D to reduce the risk of injury due to falls.
Choosing a nutrition supplement is wise if you want peace of mind in knowing that you are supplying yourself with the most important nutritional components. That is the mindset of two-thirds of all adult Americans in the U.S. who take nutritional supplements.
And according to the National Institute of Health, "Evidence does suggest that some supplements can enhance health in different ways. The most popular nutrient supplements are daily multivitamins, calcium, and vitamins B, C and D. Calcium supports bone health, and vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium. Vitamins C and E are antioxidants—molecules that prevent cell damage and help to maintain health."
How Do Vitamins and Mineral Supplements Help Your Body?
Vitamins and minerals are essential for your body to function at its peak, and there are consequences if your body doesn't get what it needs. According to the Linus Pauling Institute, Americans don't get enough calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin D. These deficiencies and others may contribute to chronic health conditions including anemia, osteoporosis, arthritis, thyroid disease, heart disease, and even some types of cancer. When you consider how to help your body absorb nutrients and to combat nutritional deficiencies, it is crucial to address your diet and supplement it as necessary to avoid shortfalls.
Some people may need to rely more on nutrition supplements than others. The truth is if you have a digestive disorder or avoid certain food groups, the chances are high that you aren't getting the nutritional combinations that you need. Vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids, amino acids, and other phytonutrients are the building blocks, energy boosters, and disease-fighting elements the body needs to function. Your body's wellness is particularly dependent on these vitamins and minerals:
1. Vitamin A
Vitamin A is central to eye health, immune function, cell growth and health, and reproduction. The leading cause of preventable blindness in young children is vitamin A deficiency. If you're pregnant and you ask your doctor "what vitamins should I take?," vitamin A will likely be at the top of the list.
Be sure to follow the directions provided by the supplement manufacturer on how to take multivitamins to avoid stomach upset and nausea. A vitamin A deficiency also increases the mortality risk of infections, particularly measles and diarrhea.
2. B Vitamins
The B vitamins are essential for converting carbohydrates and glucose into energy, supporting skin, eye, and digestive health, producing red blood cells and hormones, influencing brain processes, mental ability, and stabilizing moods. A deficiency in one or more of the B vitamins increases your risk of certain health problems including anemia, fatigue, and difficulty thinking.
A note about vitamin B12: If you eat a plant-based diet, you have an increased risk of deficiency as many vitamin B12-rich foods are animal based. Be sure to eat foods as part of a well-balanced diet that includes an abundance of healthy fats like olive oil and coconut oil as well as plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables. And remember taking vitamins is important to protect against a vitamin B12 shortfall and severe vitamin B12 deficiency that could cause nerve damage, confusion, or dementia. Also to note, B12 is the vitamin requires intrinsic factor, a substance secreted by the stomach, in order to be absorbed.
3. Vitamin C
The human body can't produce the water-soluble vitamin C, so we must get it from food or supplements. Vitamin C is necessary for protein metabolism, wound healing, collagen production, and it is a powerful antioxidant that fights free radicals.
When humans don't get enough vitamin C, scurvy can occur leading to general malaise and fatigue as well as joint pain and depression. If you have anemia, drink a glass of orange juice or take a vitamin C supplement when you eat iron-rich foods to increase the bioavailability of iron.
4. Vitamin D
Do you spend at least 20 minutes a day in the sunshine? If not, you are at an increased risk for developing a vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin the human body can produce — but only when we expose our skin to the sun. Having a vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of asthma in children as well as increases the risk of death from cardiovascular disease and specific types of cancer.
Not having enough vitamin D in reserve may also contribute to cognitive impairment in older adults, gluten intolerance, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and even multiple sclerosis. The "sunshine vitamin" is essential for bone health because it helps the body process and use calcium. When you don't get enough vitamin D absorption from supplements, foods, or the sun, you may start to experience muscle weakness and bone pain.
Calcium is required to maintain and build healthy bones. Your teeth and bones store most of the calcium in your body, but this mineral is also key for muscle health and it is required to release hormones that support organs and tissues throughout the body.
Calcium deficiency can cause low bone mass and increase the risk of osteoporosis. As the deficiency worsens, you may experience abnormal heart rhythms, convulsions, and numbness or tingling in your extremities.
Potassium is essential for heart health, bone and muscle strength, and healthy blood pressure levels. If you get enough potassium each day, the risk of stroke decreases. Potassium helps to regulate the fluids in the body and controls certain actions of the muscles, including the heart.
According to a clinical study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, less than 2 percent of adults in the United States get enough potassium every day. Low levels of potassium in your bloodstream may cause arrhythmias, weakness, fatigue, constipation, and muscle cramps.
Researchers estimate that approximately half of the United States adult population doesn't consume enough magnesium every day. Magnesium deficiencies are linked to an increased risk of osteoporosis, heart disease, and a variety of metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes.
Many people wonder what helps vitamin D and calcium absorption. It's magnesium. Magnesium plays a vital role in the absorption of key nutrients including calcium and vitamin D. The synergy between magnesium and vitamin D is interesting as the bioavailability of magnesium is quite low, but research shows vitamin D can increase magnesium absorption significantly.
One of the difficulties with many of today's popular diets is the strict limitation or total avoidance of certain food groups. For example, avoiding whole grains could contribute to deficient levels of the B vitamins, zinc, magnesium, iron, and copper. According to Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, eating whole grains contributes to better overall health and a reduction in inflammation-related conditions, a lower risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease mortality, and a reduction in risk for type 2 diabetes.
If you elect to remove food groups from your diet, you must add vitamins and minerals you are missing with a high-quality supplement formulated with bioavailable nutrients.
Vitamins and the Digestive System
When you look into how to absorb vitamins better into your system, so they reach the systemic circulation stage, it is vital to understand how vitamins are broken down and absorbed by the body. The first step in vitamin digestion begins with chewing and the introduction of saliva.
After swallowing, the food moves to the stomach where stomach acids and gut bacteria break the food into easily digested particles. Finally, these particles move to the small intestine where the vitamins and other nutrients are absorbed, with some nutrients metabolizing in the liver.. After the nutrients are absorbed, the remaining particles pass on to the large intestine.
Individuals with digestive and malabsorption syndrome disorders and individuals with low stomach acid, or have had bariatric surgery can have a difficult time absorbing vitamins and minerals from food and supplements. No two digestive systems are alike, and each system has its idiosyncrasies and challenges. If you have digestive problems and take a digestive enzyme regularly to speed vitamin digestion, learning how to absorb vitamins better is essential to your gut health. You may need to switch to a vitamin supplement formulated with small particles for best results.
The importance of nutrient absorption
Many health experts also see nutritional deficiencies skyrocketing due to poor nutrition and poor vitamin absorption and mineral absorption, leading to physicians and natural health practitioners recommending highly bioavailable vitamin and mineral supplements. If you have a gastrointestinal disorder or disease, poor nutrient absorption is common, and you may need to learn how to absorb vitamin supplements better without swallowing pills. An inability to swallow pills can lead to health problems including nutritional deficiencies, so it is essential to address the problem head-on to avoid complications.
The human body can't survive, let alone thrive, without proper absorption of the 13 essential vitamins including vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins. These vitamins are essential for wellness, and research shows optimal levels in our system may help to protect against Alzheimer's disease, heart disease, certain types of cancer, and other chronic conditions.
When our bodies don't absorb enough of these essential vitamins through foods or supplements, deficiencies occur. The top four most common vitamin deficiencies in the United States are vitamin D, B12, B6, and C.
What is bioavailability of vitamins and minerals?
In the simplest of terms, the bioavailability of vitamins is the proportion of the nutrient that the body can use. The bioavailability score is often significantly less than the dose, or the calculated amount of the nutrient in a food or a supplement. In supplements, poor bioavailability can be caused by nutrient particles that are too large, or because of synthetic fillers, anti-caking agents, coatings, and other elements that interfere with absorption.
Specific nutrients may have poor bioavailability unless partnered with another nutrient — for example, turmeric and black pepper. Turmeric has poor bioavailability unless it is taken with piperine, a compound found in black pepper that increases the bioavailability of turmeric by 2,000 percent. This striking synergistic relationship between black pepper and turmeric isn't the only example. As noted above, vitamin D and magnesium also need each other to be adequately absorbed by the body.
9 Ways to Increase Your Body's Vitamin and Mineral Absorption
Learning how to absorb vitamins better for your specific needs may require a change of diet and a change in the supplements you take. Read on to learn about the 9 ways to boost vitamin and mineral absorption from the supplements you're taking and the foods in your diet.
1. Take Fat-Soluble Vitamins with Oils or Fats
Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble vitamins that are stored in our body's tissues. These vitamins are critical because they support many healthy functions in the body and may even prevent certain diseases. You should take these essential micronutrients with fats or oils so they can be solubilized (dissolved) for absorption.
Nutrients that cannot be dissolved are less likely to be absorbed, so you have to consume them with a solution that can dissolve them. To maximize nutrient absorption, consume your fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) with fats or oils that can help with absorption. For example, when taking your multivitamin in the morning, consume it with a nut butter, such as almond butter, cashew butter or peanut butter. If you have eggs in the morning - cook them in olive, coconut or avocado oil. You can also add avocado to your whole grain toast or as a side fruit. If you are taking your multivitamin at lunch or dinner, add some avocado slices or add a handful of nuts or seeds to your sandwich or salad, or add olive or avocado oil to roasted vegetables.
Most supplements containing fat-soluble vitamins come in dehydrated, compacted tablets, pills, or powders, which do not readily dissolve for efficient vitamin and mineral absorption. If instead, you decide to take a single fat-soluble vitamin, take a gel cap which packages the vitamin in oil for best absorption. For example, take a vitamin D provided in a gel cap that contains vitamin D already dissolved in sunflower oil.
Unfortunately, most gel caps don't provide a broad spectrum of essential nutrients (fat- and water-soluble vitamins). For a more comprehensive blend of nutrients, like a multivitamin, you can try a new increasingly popular alternative — MICROGEL. I believe MICROGEL is the best dietary supplement delivery system for absorption. An example is Bioactive Multi and Vegan Essentials by Healthycell, which includes a broad spectrum of essential vitamins and minerals, plus phytonutrients and botanical antioxidants from premium ingredient sources in highly bioavailable forms. The fat-soluble vitamins are pre-dissolved in natural oils, and the water-soluble vitamins are pre-dissolved in water. Both types of vitamins are infused into a microgel that delivers high vitamin and mineral absorption. As a bonus, the microgel is made of prebiotics for an added healthy gut boost.
2. Spice It Up!
When you eat spicy foods like pepper, the "hot" sensation you get is actually a biological activity that enhances nutrient absorption. The active compounds that cause this sensation are called thermonutrients– compounds that create heat when ingested, boost metabolism, and improve vitamin and mineral absorption.
The heat that thermonutrients generate in the body creates more demand for various nutrients needed to support faster metabolism, which causes the body to boost nutrient transportation through the GI tract in response.
In the case of pepper, the active thermonutrient compound is called piperine. Some supplements contain piperine (usually in the form of BioPerine®). But you can add your own thermo-nutrients to your vitamin regimen or diet by taking a small amount of hot pepper sauce or ground pepper immediately before you take your vitamins. You can also look for piperine included in supplements, as in Healthycell Pro.
3. For the Best Absorbing Vitamins, Ditch the Pills
Wondering what percentage of a multivitamin is absorbed? It depends on the pill you're taking. Tablets and capsules often contain relatively large, dense, poorly-soluble, and difficult-to-absorb particles (more than 10 times too big for absorption). Picture small grains of sand, which are about the same size as many vitamin particles found inside vitamin tablets. For this reason, many people only absorb about 20% of the ingredients in their supplements.
According to nutrition and bioavailability Ph.D.'s at the University of New England, micronutrients need to be absorbed into the bloodstream, and then into cells, to have a positive impact. The current size of most nutrient particles and tablets and capsules make it impossible for them to be absorbed into the bloodstream. This doesn't mean crushing vitamins and minerals for better absorption, it means taking a supplement with nano-sized particles that can be absorbed and used as fuel by our cells.
A new microgel absorption technology called MICROGEL™ is creating a new standard for nutritional supplements and replacing tablets, capsules, and powders. Formulated by world-leading nutritional scientists, this unique MICROGEL technology allows for maximum absorption of ingredients into the body by releasing extremely small, ultra-bioavailable nutrient particles at specific locations in the digestive tract. You can try Bioactive Multi or Vegan Essentials by Healthycell to experience this new, pill-free, more effective way of taking vitamins.
4. Take the Right Nutrients Together and Keep Others Separate
You've likely heard the words "synergies" and "contraindications" but let's make these terms easier to understand as they relate to vitamin and mineral absorption.
Synergy means two or more ingredients that should be taken together because they work together to improve the absorption of each other.
Contraindication means two or more nutrients that should not be taken together. Instead, they need to be taken separately for maximum absorption because they prevent the absorption of each other.
Micronutrients that should be taken together
Vitamin K, vitamin D, and calcium should be taken together because this combination helps your body absorb minerals better, like calcium into your bones. Vitamin K2 is a type of vitamin K known as menaquinone that is especially helpful in directing calcium away from the bloodstream and blood vessels (where it can cause dangerous arterial calcification and cardiovascular issues) and into your bones. Because of this effect, vitamin K2 has added circulatory and heart health benefits.
Vitamin C and iron should also be taken together for two reasons:
(1) Vitamin C helps your body absorb iron.
(2) Vitamin C has been shown to reduce the side effects of nausea and constipation for people who are sensitive to iron.
Vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate are B vitamins that work together to lower an amino acid called homocysteine. A reduction in homocysteine correlates to lower incidences of heart disease and stroke.
Potassium, magnesium, and calcium all help to support your nervous system function. They also support a healthy electrolyte balance in your body, which is related to hydration. Lastly, evidence points to this combination potentially reducing blood pressure and risk of stroke.
Vitamin C and vitamin E as a combination is more effective than either vitamin alone. The combination acts as a protective antioxidant force that helps buffer cells from free-radical damage. There is also evidence that this combination may help reduce your risk of stroke and heart disease.
Vitamin A and vitamin E work synergistically as an antioxidant powerhouse. Plus, vitamin A helps vitamin E to be absorbed in your small intestine.
Vitamin A and iodine work well together because a metabolite of vitamin A called retinoic acid helps your body to absorb iodine, which is needed for thyroid health.
Iron, zinc, and vitamin A also work well together. Zinc is required to transport vitamin A around the body, and iron is needed to convert beta-carotene into a form of vitamin A your body can use called retinol.
If you are going to take nutrients separately, you should strategically split them by learning which vitamins and minerals to take in the morning vs. evening. The body actually has different needs in the morning and evening, so this is a good practice to optimize your diet and supplement regimen.
Micronutrients that should not be taken together
Zinc and copper should be taken separately because they block the absorption of each other by competing for the same receptors in your body.
Calcium and iron should be taken separately because they also compete for the same receptors in your body, and therefore block the absorption of one another.
5. Know How Your Medications May Affect Nutrient Absorption
If you're taking prescription medications or over-the-counter medications, they could be interacting with the vitamins and minerals in your diet and in your supplements in many ways. They may reduce vitamin and mineral absorption, risking deficiency. Or they may increase absorption, risking toxicity.
There are too many potential interactions to list, so you should consult your physician about potential nutrient absorption issues with your medications, and especially about mixing medications with your supplements. Your physician should take care to read the Supplement Facts label of your supplements and crosscheck for potential interactions.
6. Supercharge Your Digestive System with Prebiotics, Probiotics, and Enzymes
The health of your GI tract determines, to a large degree, how many nutrients you absorb from your diet and your supplements. For this reason, you should keep it as healthy as possible with prebiotics, probiotics, and digestive enzymes.
Prebiotics, including plant fibers, are food for your probiotics. Probiotics are healthy bacteria that help you break down the food you ingest so you can absorb it easier in the small intestine. Enzymes also help you to break down the food you ingest.
Make sure you get enough of these three gut boosting ingredients. Older adults tend to have less efficient GI tracts so it may be even more important for these individuals to add these nutrients to their diets.
7. Watch the Expiration Date
Vitamin products are supposed to undergo stability testing, which analyzes the "freshness" or activity of vitamins over time. The activity of a micronutrient packed into a tablet, capsule, or mixed into a powder slowly degrades over time.
Most supplements have a stability period (the time frame during which vitamins are active) of two years from the time they are made. The limit of this stability period is the expiration date stamped on the product.
Since the activity of nutrients inside supplement products degrades over time, the closer to the production date you can get a product, the more bioavailable it will be, and the more active nutrients you will absorb. If you take an older product, or even one slightly past its expiration, you'll likely be just fine, but you will be getting less than the number of active nutrients for which you paid.
8. Store Supplements and Foods Properly
Storing vitamins and foods improperly can leave you with supplements that are full of inactive nutrients. Follow the instructions on the label for proper storage. For most vitamins, proper storage means keeping them away from light, moisture, and heat, with a recommended storage temperature of 15-30C (59-86F). The same goes for most foods.
9. Take the recommended vitamin, mineral and supplement dosages.
For those of us who like to make informed decisions when it comes to the foods and supplements we consume, following the new FDA guidelines is a good rule of thumb. No one agrees with everything the FDA does but their new nutrition guidelines help to understand which products are formulated based on these guidelines. Unfortunately, many supplement makers don't follow the science and recommendations, which leads to having mega doses certain nutrients and not enough of others.
Companies like Healthycell that have designed products that adhere to the FDA's latest nutritional recommendations are proving the value they place on the last 30 years of scientific research that has gone into the FDA nutrient and nutrition label update as well as their customers' overall wellbeing.
For example, the MICROGEL supplements by Healthycell are formulated specifically with the new FDA guidelines in mind to bring consumers a supplement that is as innovative in bioavailable form as it is in function. In addition to these benefits, Healthycell's unique gel pack size allows them to fit the scientific dose of key ingredients where pill vitamins have obvious size limitations.
So if you'd like to save yourself from having to compare and calculate your supplement's nutrition based on the FDA changes, your best bet is to go with a MICROGEL product by Healthycell.
As you have learned in this Complete Guide to Increasing Vitamin and Mineral Absorption, there's a lot of hard work that goes into eating a healthy and nutrient dense diet to ensure you're giving your body all of the nutrients you body needs.
Absorbing a healthy lifestyle,
Dr. Vincent Giampapa