Magnesium: What You Should Know

Sources, Benefits, Forms, Dosage 

What is Magnesium?

Magnesium is an essential major mineral. Unlike trace minerals, major minerals, also known as macrominerals, need to be present in the diet in amounts larger than 100 mg (milligrams) because the body cannot make these nutrients on its own to sustain normal and healthy bodily functions.1

Benefits of Magnesium – There are many

In the body, magnesium is involved in over 300 chemical reactions and therefore has a significant influence on enzymatic functions, metabolism, nerve function, and muscular contraction.1,2

In addition to benefiting bodily functions and reactions, the body also contains high amounts of magnesium. Magnesium is predominately stored in bones and muscle tissue.3 50-60% of magnesium stored in the body is found in the skeletal system, which results in positive health benefits on bone structure.1,4

Other research shows adequate intake of magnesium may even help prevent chronic illness such as heart disease, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes.1,4

The different forms of Magnesium

Magnesium can be found in different forms and chelated to bind with other molecules such as salts for optimal absorption. Common forms are magnesium oxide, magnesium aspartate, magnesium citrate, and magnesium glycinate. Magnesium oxide is not a form that is not well absorbed, and can add stress gastrointestinal tract and act as a laxative.5 The form magnesium bisglycinate chelate is more bioavailable as it is absorbed differently than other forms.5

Forms of magnesium that are commonly found in nutrition supplements include magnesium aspartate, magnesium chloride, magnesium citrate, and magnesium lactate.6

The video below explains more about magnesium bisglycinate chelate from Albion Nutrition.

Sources of Magnesium – From food and nutrition supplements

Dietary sources with a high content of magnesium include spinach and other green leafy vegetables, beans, seeds and nuts, dairy products, bananas, chocolate, and fortified foods.1,2 Whole grains are another great source of magnesium, and provide higher amounts than refined grain foods.Many magnesium rich foods are neglected in American diets.2

Magnesium is also found in certain over the counter medications that treat indigestion and heartburn such as antacids and laxatives.4

Absorption of magnesium can be altered depending on other nutrients present in the diet. For example, studies have indicated those with diets high in calcium, phosphorous, and even fiber, may not optimally absorb magnesium.1

Recommended daily dose of Magnesium – What physicians advise

The recommended daily dose for nutrients are unique to a person’s age, gender, environment, and other personal factors. The Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) established a recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for magnesium as a reference to meet the needs of healthy individuals. The RDA for magnesium for healthy adults is 420 mg/day for men and 320 mg/day for women.

Recommended Dietary Allowance
(RDA) Magnesium
Infants (0 – 12 months) 30 – 75 mg/day
Children (1 – 8 years) 80 – 130 mg/day
Adolescents (9 – 18 years) 240 – 410 mg/day
Adults (19 – 30 years) 310 – 420 mg/day
Adults (31+ years) 320 – 420 mg/day
Pregnant and Lactating Women 310 – 400 mg/day

Table 1: Daily Magnesium Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for Healthy Individuals4

Certain populations may need to be more mindful when evaluating their magnesium needs. Individuals prescribed certain antibiotics and biophosphates may not optimally absorb their medications when taken along with magnesium.6 Also diuretics, medications for acid reflux, and even zinc dietary supplements can inhibit the bioavailability of magnesium.6 With any particular medication or health condition it is always best to consult with your primary healthcare provider before taking the Healthycell® products or any nutrition supplement.

Magnesium toxicity – Uncommon

Magnesium toxicity is uncommon, however adverse effects have been reported when taking dangerously high doses mostly from nutrition supplements and/or medications with high amounts of magnesium.1 Magnesium toxicity symptoms include gastrointestinal issues such as nausea, cramping, diarrhea.1 These side effects are mostly associated with the form of magnesium oxide as it has the lowest absorption rate. Heart complications can be seen in extreme cases of toxicity.1 For this reason, a maximum level that may cause an adverse event, also known as a tolerable upper intake level (UL) has been established to avoid toxic side effects.

Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) of Magnesium
Infants (0 – 12 months) NA
Children (1 – 8 years) 65 – 110 mg/day
Adolescents (9 – 18 years) 350 mg/day
Adults (19 + years) 350 mg/day
Pregnant and Lactating Women 350 mg/day

Table 2: Daily Magnesium Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)4

Magnesium deficiency, symptoms, and people at risk

Magnesium deficiency is uncommon, however, a slight deficiency or inadequate consumption is common. Symptoms of magnesium deficiency include fatigue, nausea, vomiting, muscle spasms, and abnormal nerve function. Deficiency is also related to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.1,6

Populations at risk for magnesium deficiency include alcoholics due to malnourishment, those with malabsorption disorders such as Crohn’s disease or celiac disease, type 2 diabetics, and the elderly population.1,6

Magnesium in Healthycell® Pro  

The source of magnesium in Healthycell® Pro is Magnesium Bisglycinate Chelate. The dosage of magnesium in Healthycell® Pro is 25 mg in the morning formula and 100 mg in the evening formula, for a daily dose of 125 mg, satisfying 31% of the Daily Value (%DV).

The source of magnesium in Healthycell® is magnesium amino acid chelate. The dosage of magnesium in Healthycell® is 0 mg in the morning formula and 40 mg in the evening formula, for a daily dose of 40 mg, satisfying 20% of the Daily Value (%DV). Nutrition supplement labeling and food labeling guidelines use Reference Daily Intake (RDI) as the standard for dosage.

References

1. McGuire, Michelle, PhD, and Kathy Beerman A., PhD. “Chapter 12 The Major Minerals.”

Nutritional Sciences: From Fundamentals to Food. 2nd ed. Australia: Thomson/Wadsworth,

2007. 543-544. Print.

2. Kohn, Jill. “What Is Magnesium?” Www.eatright.org, American Academy of Nutrition and

Dietetics, 3 Nov. 2017,

www.eatright.org/resource/food/vitamins-and-supplements/types-of-vitamins-and-nutrients/magnesium.

3. Sherman, Adria. “Major Minerals.” Nutrition and Health. Nutrition and Health, 2012, New

Brunswick, Rutgers University.

4. “Magnesium.” NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,

ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Magnesium-HealthProfessional/.

5. “Advantages of Magnesium Bisglycinate Chelate Buffered.” Albion Human Nutrition – Magnesium

White Paper, Albion Minerals, www.albionminerals.com/human-nutrition/magnesium-white-paper.

6. “Office of Dietary Supplements – Magnesium.” NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, U.S. Department

of Health and Human Services, ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Magnesium-Consumer/.